Lupus Anticoagulant With Reflex
Lupus Anticoagulant Screen
Qualitative detection of lupus anticoagulants in plasma6
Lupus anticoagulants are nonspecific antibodies that extend the clotting time of phospholipid-dependent clotting assays such as the aPTT.6,7 Unlike specific factor antibodies, LA are usually associated with venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, arterial thrombosis, and recurrent fetal loss.8 LA do not specifically inhibit individual coagulation factors; rather they neutralize anionic phospholipid-protein complexes that are involved in the coagulation process. Prolongation of clot-based assays is highly dependent on the sensitivity of the reagent employed. Reagents with reduced amounts of phospholipid, such as the aPTT-LA and dilute Russell viper venom time (dRVVT), have enhanced sensitivity for LA.6 Due to the heterogeneity of LA antibodies, no single assay will identify all cases.8 The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) has established criteria for the diagnosis of lupus anticoagulants.6-8 Testing for lupus anticoagulant (LA) and the antiphospholipid syndrome that is associated with these antibodies is described in more detail in the online Coagulation Appendices: Lupus Anticoagulants and Antiphospholipid Syndrome.
3 mL (Note: This volume does not allow for repeat testing.)
lue-top (sodium citrate) tube
Ideally, the patient should not be on anticoagulant therapy. Avoid warfarin (Coumadin®) therapy for two weeks prior to the test and heparin, direct Xa, and thrombin inhibitor therapies for about three days prior to testing.
Citrated plasma samples should be collected by double centrifugation. The sample should be mixed immediately by gentle inversion at least six times to ensure adequate mixing of the anticoagulant with the blood. When noncitrate tubes are collected for other tests, collect sterile and nonadditive (red-top) tubes prior to citrate (blue-top) tubes. Any tube containing an alternate anticoagulant should be collected after the blue-top tube. Gel-barrier tubes and serum tubes with clot initiators should also be collected after the citrate tubes. Centrifuge for 10 minutes and carefully remove 2/3 of the plasma using a plastic transfer pipette, being careful not to disturb the cells. Deliver to a plastic transport tube, cap, and recentrifuge for 10 minutes. Use a second plastic pipette to remove the plasma, staying clear of the platelets at the bottom of the tube. Transfer the plasma into a frozen purple tube with screw cap. Freeze immediately and maintain frozen until tested.
Severe hemolysis; improper labeling; clotted specimen; specimen diluted with IV fluids; samples thawed in transit; improper sample type; sample out of stability