C-Peptide, Urine

Test ID: 


CPT code:



C-Peptide, 24-Hour Urine

Connecting Peptide

Insulin C-Peptide

Proinsulin C-Peptide

Clinical Use:

Urine C-peptide is measured when a continuous assessment of β-cell function is desired or frequent blood sampling is not practical (eg, in children). C-peptide excretion in urine has been used to assess pancreatic function in gestational diabetes and in patients with unstable glycemic control in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).

Test Information:

C-peptide is a single-chain 31-amino acid (AA 33-63) connecting (C) polypeptide with a molecular weight of approximately 3021 daltons. In the process of biosynthesis of insulin, the C-peptide is formed as a byproduct together with insulin by the proteolytic cleavage of the precursor molecule proinsulin, stored in secretory granules in the Golgi complex of the pancreatic β-cells. Proinsulin, in turn, was cleaved from preproinsulin.
C-peptide fulfills an important function in the assembly of the two-chain insulin (α- and β-chain) structure and the formation of the two disulfide bonds within the proinsulin molecule. Insulin and C-peptide are secreted in equimolar amounts and released into circulation via the portal vein. As half of the insulin, but almost none of the C-peptide, is extracted in the liver, C-peptide has a longer half-life (about 35 minutes) than insulin; 5 to 10 times higher concentration of C-peptide persists in the peripheral circulation, and these levels fluctuate less than insulin.
The liver does not extract C-peptide, which is removed from the circulation by the kidneys and degraded, with a fraction excreted unchanged in the urine. The concentration in urine is about 20- to 50-fold higher than in serum. C-peptide concentrations are, therefore, elevated in renal disease.

Specimen Type:

Urine (24-hour), frozen

Requested Volume: 

10 mL

Minimum Volume: 

1 mL

Container Type: 

Plastic urine container


Instruct the patient to void at 8 AM and discard the specimen. Then collect all urine including the final specimen voided at the end of the 24-hour collection period (ie, 8 AM the next morning) in a 24-hour urine collection container. pH should be 4 to 7.

Storage Instructions:


Stability Requirements:



Room temperature

1 day


14 days


14 days

Freeze/thaw cycles

Stable x3

Rejection Criteria

pH <3 or pH >8

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