Allergen-Food-IgE Peanut w/Component Reflex
Allergen Profile, Peanut, IgE With Component Reflexes
The measurement of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to individual components of an allergen, either purified native or recombinant, is referred to as component resolved diagnosis (CRD). This approach represents an improvement over traditional measurement of IgE to allergen extracts that contain a mixture of proteins. The pattern of specific IgE reactivity to component allergens can predict which patients are at higher risk for systemic allergic reactions versus those who are sensitized but clinically tolerant. CDR can also be used to predict which patients are at risk for more severe reactions and which patients are likely to have milder symptoms.
Allergies to plant derived foods can occur as the result of sensitization to relatively stable proteins, such as the seed storage or lipid transfer proteins. Sensitization to this type of protein can be associated with more severe, systemic reactions and a higher risk for anaphylaxis. Alternatively, allergies to plant derived foods may occur in pollen sensitized individuals due to pollen allergens that cross react with food allergens. Examples of pollen associated allergens are the profilins or PR10 proteins that are homologues of the major white birch pollen antigen Bet v 1. Allergy to this family of proteins is associated with symptoms that are generally limited to the oropharyngeal area (commonly referred to as the oral allergy syndrome of pollen food allergy syndrome.
Component resolved diagnostics can help to:
• Distinguish between allergy due to cross-reactivity and primary allergy
• Improve the risk assessment using allergen components
• Improve management of allergic patients
While sensitization to peanut is common, with somewhere between 8% and 12% of the general public showing sensitivity on either skin prick test or peanut extract allergen specific IgE testing, the majority of these people are not allergic.
Ara h 1
Ara h 2
Ara h 3
• Sensitization to Ara h 1, 2 and 3 is usually acquired in childhood.
• IgE to Ara h 2 has the best discriminative ability of all diagnostic tests for peanut allergy. It can accurately diagnose peanut allergy in 28% of patients but cannot be used to exclude a peanut allergy in an adult population.
• The presence of antibodies to Ara h 1 and/or Ara h 3 increases the risk of severe reactions.
• These three major peanut allergens (Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3) contain similar peptide sequences accounting for the high extent of cross-reactivity observed among them.
• Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 have been associated with severe symptoms, although anaphylactic reactions have been described in patients negative for these allergens.
• Reactivity to these dominant allergens at the time of diagnosis in a population of North American infants and toddlers with early-onset peanut allergy was found to be associated with future allergy persistence at age 13 years.
Ara h 6
• Ara h 6 is a major peanut allergen showing similarity with Ara h 2 in many aspects.
• Because both are storage proteins of the 2S albumin type that are heat stable and resistant to digestion in the gut, they are associated with potentially systemic reactions.
• Up to 4 out of 100 peanut allergic patients are monosensitized** to Ara h 6.
Ara h 8
• IgE antibodies to the Ara h 8 are seldom associated with systemic reactions but more often to local reactions like oral allergy syndrome.
• Birch-sensitized individuals are frequently co-sensitized to peanut Ara h 8.
• Sensitization to this birch pollen cross-reactive allergen varies depending on local exposure to birch pollen.
• Children that are mono-sensitized to Ara h 8 can usually safely ingest peanut.
Ara h 9
• Ara h 9 is a minor component of peanuts. However, sensitization to this type of allergenic protein, referred to as a Lipid Transfer Protein, is generally associated with severe reactions in addition to OAS.
• Ara h 9 has been correlated with mild to severe symptoms in Mediterranean patients.
• The heterogeneity in the clinical and immunological phenotype of peanut allergy in distinct geographical areas reflect exposures to different environmental pollen and differences in dietary traditions.
• The most commonly occurring sensitization to peanut proteins in individuals who tolerate peanut is directed to Ara h 8 and Ara h 9.
• Use of component testing allows for the assessment of sensitization to proteins that may be under-represented in whole peanut extracts.
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